Outline of Indian Chronology: Manu (14500 BCE) to Vikramaditya (1 BCE)

Indian Chronology

The antiquity and the chronology of ancient Indian civilization can be presented in seven distinct stages as follows:

1. Early Vedic Period (14500-13000 BCE)

2. Vedic Period (13000-10500 BCE)

3. Post Vedic Period (10500-6777 BCE)

4. The 28th Treta Yuga Period (6777-5577 BCE)

5. The 28th Dvapara Yuga Period (5577-3176 BCE)

6. The Epoch of Mahabharata War (3162 BCE)

7. The 28th Kaliyuga Period: From Mahabharata War to King Vikramaditya (From 3162 BCE to 1 BCE).

 

Indian Chronology: Early Vedic Period (14500-13000 BCE)

 

 

15962 BCE

The Epoch of Adiyuga

9185 years (1837 nos of 5-year Yugas) before 6777 BCE (beginning of 28th Treta Yuga of 7th Manvantara)

14500 BCE

Brahma I

Summer Solstice at Dhanishtha Nakshatra

14480 BCE

Svayambhuva Manu (Founder of Manu/Ikshvaku/Surya Vamsh)

 

14480 BCE

Saptarshis (Atri, Marichi, Vasishtha, Angiras, Pulaha, Pulastya and Kratu)

 

14450 BCE

Uttanapada

 

14400 BCE

Dhruva

 

14310 BCE

Rishabhadev

 

14030 BCE

King Prithu

 

14030 BCE

Kashyapa I, Aditi, Diti

 

14011 BCE

Birth of Brihaspati I

Conjunction of Sun, Moon, Jupiter and Winter solstice at Tishya Nakshatra

14000 BCE

Adityas (Indra I, Vishnu I etc.) and Daityas

 

14000 BCE

Devas (Adityas) and Asuras (Daityas)

 

14000 BCE

Rudra I, Eight Vasus, Manu & Ida

 

14000 BCE

Soma (Founder of Chandra Vamsh)

 

13950 BCE

King Puru I

 

13800 BCE

City of Ayodhya was founded by Manu

 

13650 BCE

Indra II & Vritasura (Beginning of Political power struggle between Devas and Asuras)

 

13650 BCE

Rishi Dadhichi

 

13630 BCE

Ashvini Kumaras, Rishi Chyavana

 

13550 BCE

Marutta Avikshita and Vishve Devaah

 

13500 BCE

King Trishanku

 

13500 BCE

Vasishtha II & Jamadagni I

Autumnal Equinox at Ashvini Nakshatra

13500 BCE

Vishvamitra I & Menaka

Summer Solstice at Sravana Nakshatra

13480 BCE

Dushyanta & Shakuntala, Rishi Kanva

 

13450 BCE

King Bharata & Rishi Dirghatamas I

 

13450 BCE

Sauvira, Madra, Kekaya, Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra, Suhma, Kanyakubja, Kampilya, Kaushambi, Girivraja, Matsya, Saurashtra came into existence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Chronology: Vedic Period (13000-10500 BCE)

                                                            

13400 BCE

Swarochisha Manu (Manu II)

 

13200 BCE

Uttama Manu (Manu III)

 

13000 BCE

Tapasa Manu (Manu IV)

 

12600 BCE

Raivata Manu (Manu V) [Founder of Kushasthali city in Saurashtra near Girnar hills which came to be known as Raivatak Parvat]

Autumnal Equinox at Revati Nakshatra

12300 BCE

King Vidarbha [Vidarbha kingdom]

 

12000 BCE

Kushasthali city was sunk in the sea but the island resurfaced later.

During Meltwater Pulse 1A

11800 BCE

Chakshusha Manu (Manu VI)

 

11500 BCE

Ajamidha II, Bahyashva [Founder of Panchalas]

 

11500 BCE

Vrishni of Yadu dynasty

 

11500 BCE

Founder of Kuru dynasty

 

11300 BCE

Indra III & Shambara

 

11270 BCE

Datta Atreya

 

11270 BCE

Vaivasvata Manu

 

11250 BCE

King Ikshvaku

 

11250 BCE

Dasharajna War

 

11240 BCE

Aila Pururava & Urvashi

 

11218 BCE

Daksha Yajna (Shiva & Sati)

Vriddhagarga: Kaliketu rises from the east stationed in the region of Jyeshtha, Mula and Anuradha nakshatras. This observation of Kaliketu corresponds to Hailey’s Comet in Aug-Sep 11218 BCE.

11226 BCE

Agastya and First Tamil Sangam

 

11220 BCE

Shukracharya

 

11220 BCE

Hiranyakashyap, Prahlad

 

11200 BCE

Great Flood in Manu’s Kingdom [in Saurashtra]

 

11200 BCE

Vishvamitra  III

 

11200 BCE

Arjuna Kartavirya

 

11200 BCE

List of Nakshatras starting from Mrigashira

Winter Solstice shifted to Mrigashira

11175 BCE

Madhuchchandas, son of Vishvamitra [Author of first sukta of Rigveda]

 

11177 BCE

Parashurama I

 

11170 BCE

Veda Vyasa I [Compiled four Vedas] & Ganesha

 

11160 BCE

Vamana and King Bali

 

11153 BCE

Birth of Devakiputra Krishna

25th May 11153 BCE

11142 BCE

Kansa was killed by Krishna

Andhaka tells Kamsa a comet crossed 13 nakshatras starting from Bharani. केतुना धूमकेतोस्तु नक्षत्राणि त्रयोदश I भरण्यादीनि विद्धानि नानुयान्ति निशाकरम् II हरिवंश, Vishnu Parva. 23.27. Hailey’s Comet was in Bharani on 10 Sep 11143 BCE (Apparent Magnitude 8.5). It moved to Purva Bhadrapada in Jan 11142 BCE. During the period from 21 Jan 11142 BCE to 21 Feb 11142 BCE, Hailey’s Comet crossed 180 degrees from Purva Bhadrapada nakshatra to Purva Phalguni, exactly 13 nakshatras. Sri Krishna killed Kamsa on Magha Amavasya (24 Nov 11142 BCE) when he was 11 y 6 m old.

11150 BCE

King Mandhata

 

11130 BCE

Paila, Vaishampayana, Jaimini, Sumantu and Romaharshana Suta

 

11100 BCE

Jaiminiya Ashvamedha [History of Vedic Kuru Kings]

 

11000 BCE

Taittiriya Samhita, Vajasaneya Samhita

 

10950 BCE

Videha Madhava and Gautama Rahugana

 

10950 BCE

Sarasvati River lost in sands at Vinashana and started flowing westwards.

 

10880 BCE

Videha King Janak,Yajnavalkya, Gargi

 

10880 BCE

Uddalaka Aruni, Shetaketu, Kaushitaki

 

10850 BCE

Rishi Pippalada, Paippalada Samhita

 

10800 BCE

Rishi Maitrayana, Maitrayani Samhita

 

10800 BCE

Shakala and Bashkala Branches of Rigveda

 

10700 BCE

Videha King Nimi performed Sarasvati Satra

 

10500 BCE

Compilation of Shakala Samhita of Rigveda

 

 

 

 

Indian Chronology: Post Vedic Period (10500-6777 BCE)

                                                            

10500 BCE

Vedic period ends with large scale migrations eastwards and southwards from the banks of Sarasvati River and Sapta Sindhu region due to arid climate. Vedic Sarasvati river (Kurukshetra to Prabhas Patan) disappeared at Vinashana and started flowing westwards from Kurukshetra to Sindh to Gujarat. Ikshvaku kings moved to Ayodhya and Videha kings shifted to Mithila.

11050-10050 BCE

1000-year Satra was performed in Naimisharanya. Ugrashravas Suta, son of Romaharshana Suta (disciple of Veda Vyasa I) and Rishi Shaunaka started this Satra.

10200 BCE

Resetting of List of Nakshatras starting from Rohini and Magha Shukla Pratipada in Dhanishtha Nakshatra (at Autumnal equinox).

Winter Solstice shifted to Rohini

10500-9500 BCE

Seemingly, Sapta Sindhu region was under Arid climate.

 

9300 BCE

Dvaravati city was submerged by sea

During Meltwater Pulse 1B

9300 BCE

Compilation of Panchavimsha Brahmana and Prashnopanishad.

9200 BCE

Rishi Mahidasa Aitareya wrote Aitareya Brahmana.

9200 BCE

List of Nakshatras starting from Krittika

Winter Solstice shifted to Krittika

9200 BCE

Compilation of Nakshatra Sukta of Atharvaveda

 

9000 BCE

Compilation of Jaiminiya Brahmana, Tavalkara Upanishad Brahmana, Kenopanishad.

8800 BCE

Compilation of Shatapatha Brahmana and Brihadaranyakopanishad, Taittiriya Brahmana, Aranyaka, Upanishad, Kathaka & Kapishthala Samhitas, Maitrayani Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyaka, Upanishad, Chandogyopanishad

8500 BCE

Exclusion of Abhijit Nakshatra (27 Nakshatras)

 

8000 BCE

Compilation of Gopatha Brahmana

 

7500 BCE

Compilation of Samavidhana Brahmana

 

7500-6500 BCE

Shrautasutras, Grihyasutras, Shulbasutras and Dharmasutras, Sankhya and Mimansa Darshana Sutras, Sushruta Samhita and Charaka Samhita, Pingala’s Chanda Shastra, Patanjali’s Yoga Darshana

7322 BCE

List of Nakshatras starting from Ashvini

Winter Solstice shifted to Ashvini

6778 BCE

Mayasura wrote Surya Siddhanta

 

10500-7322 BCE

Ikshvakus and Videha Kings were ruling over Ayodhya and Mithila respectively. Kurus and Panchalas were ruling over some areas of Sapta Sindhu region. Pandyas were ruling over Tamilnadu and Kerala. Ashmaka and Kuntala Kings were ruling over Andhra, Karnataka and Maharashtra regions. Unfortunately, we have irretrievably lost the genealogical data of the Ikshvaku kings because later Puranic updaters mistakenly assumed 7322 BCE as the beginning of Vaivasvata Manvantara instead of 11200 BCE.

 

Indian Chronology: 28th Treta Yuga Period (6777-5577 BCE) 

7322 BCE

List of Nakshatras starting from Ashvini

Winter Solstice shifted to Ashvini

7322 BCE

Counting of Chaturyugas of 20 years in a new series.

Sun, Moon and Brihaspati were in conjunction at Tishya = Pushya nakshatra at vernal equinox (on 24 May 7321 BCE)

6782 BCE

27 Chaturyugas of 20 years elapsed and the 28th Kritayuga commenced in 6782 BCE.

 

6778 BCE

Mayasura wrote Surya Siddhanta

All planets, Sun and Moon were in a great conjunction in Aries on 22 Feb 6778 BCE.

6777 BCE

28th Treta Yuga of 1200 years commenced.

12-year cycle and 60-year cycle were introduced.

6777 BCE

First Saptarshi Cycle of 2700 years commenced

 

6773 BCE

Introduction of Brahma Siddhanta Calendar and 6773 BCE was Prabhava Samvatsara

 

6500 BCE

Upavedas were compiled. Yaska wrote Nirukta.

 

6000 BCE

Compilation of Bharat Natya Shastra

 

5977 BCE

Introduction of Vasishtha Siddhanta

 

5650 BCE

Matanga Muni wrote Brihaddeshi

 

 

Ikshvaku Kings of Ayodhya

1.

Śaśāda

7450-7400 BCE

2.

Kakustha I

7400-7380 BCE

3.

Anenāḥ or Suyodhana

7380-7350 BCE

4.

Prithu

7350-7330 BCE

5.

Viśvagaśva

7330-7300 BCE

6.

Ardra or Damaka or Indu

7300-7280 BCE

7.

Yuvanāśva II

7280-7250 BCE

8.

Śrāvasta (the founder of the city of Śrāvastī)

7250-7230 BCE

9.

Brihadaśva

7230-7200 BCE

10.

Kuvalāśva II

7200-7180 BCE

11.

Driḍhāśva

7150-7130 BCE

12.

Pramoda

7130-7100 BCE

13.

Haryāśva I

7100-7080 BCE

14.

Nikumbha

7080-7060 BCE

15.

Saṁhatāśva

7060-7040 BCE

16.

Kriṣāśva and Akritāśva

7040-7020 BCE

17.

Prasenajit (Son of Kriṣāśva)

7020-7000 BCE

18.

Yuvanāśva III and Māndhātā II (Sons of Prasenajit)

7000-6980 BCE

19.

Māndhātā II

6980-6950 BCE

20.

Purukutsa (Son of Māndhātā II)

6950-6930 BCE

21.

Vasuda (Son of Purukutsa)

6930-6900 BCE

22.

Saṁbhūta

6900-6880 BCE

23.

Anaraṇya I

6880-6860 BCE

24.

Trisadaśva

6860-6840 BCE

25.

Haryāśva II

6840-6820 BCE

26.

Vasumata

6820-6800 BCE

27.

Tridhanvā

6800-6780 BCE

28.

Tryāruṇa

6780-6760 BCE

29.

Satyavrata

6760-6730 BCE

30.

Satyaratha

6730-6700 BCE

31.

Hariśchandra

6700-6670 BCE

32.

Rohitāśva

6670-6630 BCE

33.

Hārīta, Chanchu

6630-6600 BCE

34.

Vijaya

6600-6560 BCE

35.

Ruruka

6560-6530 BCE

36.

Vrika

6530-6500 BCE

37.

Bāhu

6500-6460 BCE

38.

Sagara II

6460-6430 BCE

39.

Asamañjasa

6430-6400 BCE

40.

Aṅśumān

6400-6360 BCE

41.

Dilīpa I Khaṭvāṅga

6360-6330 BCE

42.

Bhāgīratha II

6330-6300 BCE

43.

Śruta or Śrutasena

6300-6270 BCE

44.

Nābhāga

6270-6230 BCE

45.

Ambarīṣa

6230-6200 BCE

46.

Sindhudvīpa

6200-6160 BCE

47.

Ayutāyu or Ayutajit

6160-6120 BCE

49.

Rituparṇa

6120-6080 BCE

50.

Ārtaparṇi or Kalmāṣapāda II or Mitrasaha

6080-6040 BCE

51.

Sarvakarma

6040-6000 BCE

52.

Anaraṇya II

6000-5960 BCE

53.

Mūlaka

5960-5920 BCE

54.

Śataratha

5920-5880 BCE

55.

Ilavilā or Ailavila

5880-5840 BCE

56.

Viśvasaha

5840-5800 BCE

 

The genealogy  (Kālidāsa’s Raghu Vaṁśa)

57.

Dilīpa II Ailavila (Son of Ilavila)

5800-5770 BCE

58.

Raghu II or Dīrghabāhu

5770-5740 BCE

59.

Aja

5740-5700 BCE

60.

Daśaratha

5700-5649 BCE

61.  Sri Rāma (5635-5603 BCE).

 

Indian Chronology: 28th Dvapara Yuga Period (5577-3177 BCE) 

                                                          

5577 BCE

Beginning of Dvapara Yuga of 2400 years.

The time span of Chaturyuga has been increased to 12000 years with differential duration of Yugas (1:2:3:4). Thus, the 28th Dvapara Yuga lasted for 2400 years.

5000 BCE

Compilation of Manusmriti

 

5000 BCE

Akshapada Gautama and Kanada (Compilation of Nyaya and Vaisheshika sutras)

 

5000-4300 BCE

Introduction of Yavana, Romaka and Paulisha Siddhantas based on Surya Siddhanta.

 

4326 BCE

A Vaishnava tradition of 60-year cycle. 4326 BCE was the Prabhava Samvatsara.

 

3176 BCE

Saptarshi Cycle entered in Magha Nakshatra (3176-3076 BCE)

 

3162 BCE

Mahabharata War and the epoch of Yudhishthira Samvat

 

 

Ikshvaku Kings of Ayodhya

61.

Rāma

5635-5603 BCE

62.

Kuśa

5602-5550 BCE

63.

Atithi (killed in a war with Asura Durjaya.)

5550-5520 BCE

64.

Niṣāda

5520-5480 BCE

65.

Nala

5480-5440 BCE

66.

Nabhas

5440-5400 BCE

67.

Punḍarīka

5400-5370 BCE

68.

Kśemadhanvā

5370-5330 BCE

69.

Devānīka

5330-5300 BCE

70.

Ahināgu

5300-5260 BCE

71.

Paripātra

5260-5230 BCE

72.

Śīla

5230-5200 BCE

73.

Unnābha

5200-5170 BCE

74.

Vajranābha

5170-5140 BCE

75.

Śaṅkhana

5140-5100 BCE

76.

Vyuṣitāśva

5100-5070 BCE

77.

Viśvasaha

5070-5040 BCE

78.

Hiraṇyanābha

5040-5000 BCE

79.

Kauśalya

5000-4970 BCE

80.

Brahmiṣṭha

4970-4930 BCE

81.

Putra

4930-4900 BCE

82.

Puṣya

4900-4870 BCE

83.

Dhruvasandhi (killed by a lion when his son Sudarśana was six years old)

4870-4850 BCE

84.

Sudarśana

4850-4800 BCE

85.

Agnivarṇa

4800-4780 BCE

86.

Wife of Agnivarṇa

4780-4750 BCE

Ikshvaku Kingdom declined after 4750 BCE

 

Kuru Kings of Dvapara Yuga

1.

Puru

4350-4300 BCE

2.

Janamejaya

4300-4270 BCE

3.

Prachīnvān

4270-4230 BCE

4.

Saṁyāti

4230-4200 BCE

5.

Ahamyāti

4200-4170 BCE

6.

Sārvabhauma

4170-4130 BCE

7.

Jayatsena

4130-4100 BCE

8.

Arāchina

4100-4070 BCE

9.

Mahābhauma

4070-4030 BCE

10.

Ayutanāyi

4030-4000 BCE

11.

Akrodhana

4000-3970 BCE

12.

Devātithi

3970-3930 BCE

13.

Richah

3930-3900 BCE

14.

Rikśa

3900-3870 BCE

15.

Matināra

3870-3830 BCE

16.

Tansu

3830-3800 BCE

17.

Ilina

3800-3770 BCE

18.

Duḥṣanta

3770-3730 BCE

19.

Bharata

3730-3700 BCE

20.

Bhumanyu

3700-3670 BCE

21.

Suhotra

3670-3630 BCE

22.

Hasti II

3630-3600 BCE

23.

Vikunthina

3600-3570 BCE

24.

Ajamīḍha II

3570-3530 BCE

25.

Saṁvaraṇa IV

3530-3500 BCE

26.

Kuru III

3500-3470 BCE

27.

Vidūratha

3470-3430 BCE

28.

Arugvan

3430-3400 BCE

29.

Parīkśit

3400-3370 BCE

30.

Bhimasena

3370-3330 BCE

31.

Paryaśravas

3330-3290 BCE

32.

Śāntanu

3290-3240 BCE

33.

Vichitravīrya

3240-3210 BCE

34.

Dhritarāṣṭra

3210-3162 BCE

35.

Yudhiṣṭhira

3162-3126 BCE

36.

Parikshit

3126-3100 BCE

 

Indian Chronology: From Mahabharata War to King Vikramaditya (3162 BCE to 1 BCE)

 

Dynasty

Duration

In CE

1.

Bṛhadratha Dynasty

1000 y

3162-2162 BCE

2.

Pradyota Dynasty

138 y

2162-2024 BCE

3.

Śiśunāga Dynasty

360 y

2024-1664 BCE

Haryaṅka Dynasty

(Seemingly, the kings of Śiśunāga dynasty were weak rulers and could not stop the rise of Haryaṅka dynasty around 1950 BCE at Pātaliputra. The Haryaṅka dynasty was an offshoot of Ikśvāku Dynasty.)

Mahāpadma

 

1950-1925 BCE

Bimbisāra

52 y

1925-1872 BCE

Ajātaśatru

32 y

1872-1840 BCE

Buddha attained nirvāṇa in 1864 BCE and in the 8th regnal year of King Ajātaśatru.

Udāyin

16 y

1840-1824 BCE

Anuruddha Munda

8 y

1824-1816 BCE

Nāgadasaka

24 y

1816-1792 BCE

Susunāga

28 y

1792-1765 BCE

Kālāśoka

28 y

1765-1737 BCE

The second Buddhist Council was held during the reign of Kālāśoka or Dharmāśoka 100 years after Buddha nirvāṇa. The epoch of Jinachakka or the Theravāda Buddhism commenced in 1765 BCE.

Kālāśoka’s 10 sons

22 y

1737-1715 BCE

 Turuṣka kings Hushka, Jushka and Kanishka started reigning in Kashmir and Afghanistan in 1714 BCE 150 years after Buddha nirvāṇa (1864 BCE). Kushana Shāhi King Kanishka was a different person from Turuṣka King Kanishka and reigned around 1150-1118 BCE. The Rabatak inscription belong to the Kushana Shāhi King Kanishka.

4.

Nanda Dynasty

 (100 y?)

1664-1596 BCE

Mahāpadma Nanda ascended the throne 1500 years after Mahābhārata war (3162 BCE). The Saptarṣis were in Pūrvabhadrā Nakśatra around 1677-1577 BCE.

5.

Maurya Dynasty

137 y

1596-1459 BCE

Chandragupta

24 y

1596-1572 BCE

Bindusāra

25 y

1572-1547 BCE

Aśoka

36 y

1547-1511 BCE

 Aśoka was consecrated in the 218th year, i.e., 1547 BCE from the epoch of Jinachakka (1765 BCE). Later, the epoch of Jinachakka was erroneously considered as the epoch of Buddha nirvāṇa (1864 BCE).The third Buddhist Council (in Southern tradition) was convened in 18th regnal year of Aśoka, i.e., 1529 BCE. Devānāmpiya Tissa, the 7th king of Sri Lanka ascended the throne in 1529 BCE, 236 years after the epoch of Jinachakka (1765 BCE).

6.

Śuṅga Dynasty

112 y

1459-1346 BCE

7.

Kaṇva Dynasty

45 y

1346-1301 BCE

8.

Decline of Magadha Empire

1301-826 BCE

 

Magadha Kingdom

Śreṇika or Bhambhasāra

1250-1212 BCE

The Epoch of Mahāvira Nirvāṇa

1189 BCE

Kuṇika

1212-1172 BCE

Udāyi

1172-1129 BCE

Nandarāja’s ascension

1129 BCE

Ujjain Kingdom

Pālaka Kings

1189-1035 BCE

Viṣaya Kings

1034-885 BCE

Chandragupta (Viśākhāchārya)

1034-1022 BCE

Simhasena

1022-982 BCE

Bhāskara

982-950 BCE

Samprati

945-895 BCE

Muruṅdas

895-840 BCE

9.

Śātavāhana Dynasty

492 y

826-334 BCE

10.

Gupta Dynasty

245 y

334-89 BCE

11.

King Vikramaditya of Ujjain

 

82-1 BCE

 

Featured image courtesy on Indian chronology (representation purpose only): Google, Amar Chitra Katha.

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Vedveer Arya

Vedveer Arya

Vedveer Arya is a civil servant and an officer of 1997 batch of Indian Defence Accounts Service (IDAS). A postgraduate in Sanskrit from University of Delhi, he is author of 'The Chronology of India'.

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