Kurukshetra War Date Evidences: 3162 BCE Vs 3066 BCE Vs 1792 BCE

Kurukshetra War Date

 

 

-3162

-3066

-1792

Internal Astronomical Evidence on Kurukshetra War Date

 

1

Solar eclipse on the day when Pandavas left for Vanavasa.

आसीन्निष्टानकॊ घॊरॊ निर्घातश्च महानभूत्।

दिवॊल्काश्चापतन्घॊरा राहुश्चार्कमुपाग्रसत्॥ Sabhā Parva-72.21

Solar Eclipse occurred on 25 Feb -3175 and it was visible in India.

Two Solar eclipses occurred on 15 Jan and 11 Jul in -3079 but both were not visible in India.

Solar eclipses in -1805 were not visible in India

2

Vedanga Jyotisha calendar (Magha Shukladi) was in vogue during Mahabharata era.

 संवत्सराः पञ्चयुगम् अहॊरात्राश्चतुर्विधा।

कालचक्रं च यद्दिव्यं नित्यमक्षयमव्ययम् (Sabha Parva 11.28)

अनुसंवत्सरं जाता अपि ते कुरुसत्तमाःI

पाण्डुपुत्राः व्यराजन्त पञ्च संवत्सरा इवI (Adi Parva 133.24 – Southern recension)

तेषां कालातिरेकेण ज्योतिषां च व्यतिक्रमात्I

पञ्चमे पञ्चमे वर्षे द्वौ मासावुपजायतेII(Virata Parva 52.3)

Yes

No.

Not explained.

3

Bhishma calculated the exile period of Pandavas in the 5-Year Magha Shukladi Calendar (13 lunar years, 5 lunar months, 12 nights).

तेषां कालातिरेकेण ज्योतिषां च व्यतिक्रमात् I पञ्चमे पञ्चमे वर्षे द्वौ मासावुपजायते II

तेषामभ्यधिका मासाः पञ्च द्वादश च क्षपाः I त्रयोदशानां वर्षाणामिति मे वर्तते मतिः II Virata Parva 47.3-4

Yes

Not explained.

Not explained.

4

Mars was on retrograde between Chitra and Swati.

ध्रुवः प्रज्वलितो घोरमपसव्यं प्रवर्तते |

चित्रास्वात्यन्तरे चैवधिष्ठितः परुषोग्रहः॥

(Bhishma Parva 3.16)

कृत्वा चाङ्गारकॊ वक्रं ज्येष्ठायां मधुसूदन।

अनुराधां प्रार्थयते मैत्रं संशमयन् इव

(Udyoga Parva 141.8)

Yes

Yes

Mars was not on retrograde before MB war. Moreover, it went on retrograde in Uttara Phalguni after MB war.

5

Vyasa met Dhritarashtra just before few days before MB War and stated that after completing the retrograde motion, Mars is now positioned in Shravana Nakshatra.

वक्रानुवक्रं कृत्वा च श्रवणे पावकप्रभः।

ब्रह्मराशिं समावृत्य लोहिताङ्गो व्यवस्थितः॥

(Bhishma Parva 3.17) 

Mars was in Shravana around 19 Oct to 5 Nov -3162 and MB war began on 25 Oct -3162

Mars was in Shravana around 4 Oct to 20 Oct -3066 and MB war began on 25 Nov -3066.

Mars was in Magha/Purva Phalguni not in Shravana.

6

It was predicted before Kurukshetra war that Venus was ready to go on retrograde.

शुक्रः प्रॊष्ठपदे पूर्वे समारुह्य विशांपते,

उत्तरे तु परिक्रम्य सहितः प्रत्युदीक्षते ॥

(Bhishma Parva 3.15)

Yes

Yes

Yes

7

Mercury on retrograde in three Nakshatras before Kurukshetra War.

त्रिषु पूर्वेषु सर्वेषु नक्षत्रेषु विशां पते I

बुधः संपतते अभीक्ष्णं  जनयन् सुमहद् भयम् II Bhishma Parva 3.27

Yes

Yes

Yes

8

Kaumuda month (Karttika) was the month of Sharad Ritu.

कौमुदे मासि रेवत्यां शरदन्ते हिमागमे,

स्फीतसस्यमुखे काले कले: सत्त्ववतां वरः॥ (Udyoga Parva 8.17)

तथा बहुविधाकारा प्रावृन्मेघानुनादिता ।

अभ्यतीता शिवा तेषां चरतां मरुधन्वसु ॥ 9

क्रौञ्चहंसगणाकीर्णा शरत्प्राणिहिताभवत् II 10

विशालाकाशनक्षत्रा शरत्तेषां शिवाभवत् II 11

तेषां पुण्यतमा रात्रिः पर्वसन्धौ स्म शारदी

तत्रैव वसतामासीत कार्तिकी जनमेजय II 16 (Vana Parva, 179, 9-11 & 16 – Critical Edition)

पक्वौषधिवनस्फीतः फलवानल्पमक्षिकः I

निष्पङ्को रसवत्तोयो नात्युष्णशिशिरः सुखः II

सप्तमाच्चापि दिवसादमावास्या भविष्यति |
सङ्ग्रामं योजयेत्तत्र तां ह्याहुः शक्रदेवताम् || (Udyoga 140: 17-18)

Yes. During MB era, Karttika and Margashirsha were the months of Sharad Ritu in Lunisolar calendar. शरदन्ते हिमागमे has been misinterpreted as end of Sharad and beginning of Hemanta. We need to interpret it as the begining of Sharad with reference to नात्युष्णशिशिरः सुखः. Only during the beginning of Sharad, the weather would be neither hot nor cold.

Ancient Indians traditionally followed lunisolar calendar and the sharad began in Karttika month of lunisolar calendar during MB era. It may not be correct to fix the date of MB based on the occurrence of Autumnal equinox between Vishakha and Anuradha.

Yes

Yes

9

Nakshatras starting from Dhanishtha and Seasons starting from Shishira.

श्रविष्ठादीनि ऋक्षाणि ऋतवः शिशिरादयः  (MB 14. 44.2 CE)

Yes. Magha Shukladi calendar began from Dhanishtha Nakshatra because Magha Shukla Pratipada used occur in Dhanishtha. In Samvatsara of 5-year Yuga calendar, Shishira (Phalguna and Chaitra) was the first season in MB era though Samvatsara began on Magha Shukla pratipada due to intercalation of second Pausha month.

Yes

Yes

10

Venus and Mars were in conjunction on the 18th Day of War.

भृगुसूनुधरापुत्रौ शशिजेन समन्वितौ
चरमं पाण्डुपुत्राणां पुरस्तात् सर्वभूभुजाम्  II                Shalya Parva [Gita Press edition] (11:17)

Yes. There was a conjunction on 11 Nov -3162

No conjunction of Venus and Mars on the 18th day of war, i.e., 12 Dec -3066.

No conjunction of Venus and Mars on the 18th day.

11

When Moon was in Magha, no planet was visible in the sky at night before MB War.

मघाविषयगः सोमस्तद्दिनं प्रत्यपद्यत I

दीप्यमानाश्च सम्पेतुर्दिवि सप्त महाग्रहाः II 

Bhishma Parva 17.2

Yes. No Planet was visible in the sky at night on 18 Oct -3162

Cannot be explained.

Cannot be explained.

12

A lunar eclipse followed by a solar eclipse within 14 days before Kurukshetra war.

चतुर्दशीं पञ्चदशीं भूतपूर्वां च षॊडशीम्,

इमां तु नाभिजानामि अमावास्यां त्रयॊदशीम्॥ 

चन्द्रसूर्यावुभौ ग्रस्तौ एकमासे त्रयॊदशीम्,

अपर्वणि ग्रहावेतौ प्रजाः संक्षपयिष्यतः॥ (Bhishma Parva 3.28-29)

Lunar eclipse on 19 Dec -3163 and Solar eclipse on 3 Jan -3162. Both were visible in India.

Lunar eclipses on 5 Apr & 29 Sep -3066 and

Solar eclipses on 19 Apr & 13 Oct -3066 but both Solar eclipses were not visible in India.

Lunar eclipse on 20 Apr and Solar eclipse on 04 May -1792. Both were visible in India.

13

Prediction of the future occurrence of a solar eclipse based on the observation of moon just before the Mahābhārata War and Solar eclipse occurred after MB War.

सॊमस्य लक्ष्म व्यावृत्तं राहुरर्कम् उपेष्यति।

दिवॊल्काश्च पतन्त्येताः सनिर्घाताः सकम्पनाः॥ (Udyoga Parva 141.10)

राहुश्चाग्रसदादित्यमपर्वणि विशां पते I

चकम्पे च महाकम्पं पृथिवीं सवनद्रुमाः II Shalya Parva 55.10

Yes. A Solar eclipse occurred on 24 Nov

 -3162 but it was not visible in India.

Solar eclipse did not occur.

Yes. A Solar eclipse occurred on 29 Oct

 -1792 but it was not visible in India.

14

A Pair of eclipses in the 36th year after Kurukshetra war.

एवं पश्यन्   हृषीकेशः संप्राप्तं कालपर्ययम्,

त्रयॊदश्याम् अमावास्यां तान्दृष्ट्वा प्राब्रवीद् इदम्॥

चतुर्दशी पञ्चदशी कृतेयं राहुणा पुनः,

तदा च भरते युद्धे प्राप्ता चाद्य क्षयाय नः॥ (Musala Parva 3.16-17)

Lunar eclipse on 11 Jan -3126 and Solar eclipse on 24 Jan -3126. Solar eclipse was not visible in India.

Solar eclipse on 15 Nov -3031 and lunar eclipse on 29 Nov -3031. Solar eclipse was not visible in India.

Solar eclipse on 1 Dec

 -1757, 26 May & 19 Nov -1756 but not visible in India.

15

Jupiter was on retrograde in Shravana and also occulted by Saturn before Kurukshetra War.

मघास्वङ्गारकॊ वक्रः श्रवणे च बृहस्पतिः,

भाग्यं नक्षत्रमाक्रम्य सूर्यपुत्रेण पीड्यते॥ (Bhishma 3.13)

Jupiter went on retrograde and occulted by Saturn in Shravana on 26 Aug

-3163, one year before MB war.

Cannot be explained.

Cannot be explained.

16

Jupiter crossed Rohini in the recent past.

बृहस्पती रोहिणीं संप्रपीड्य बभूव चन्द्रार्कसमानवर्णः I

Yes. In -3171, Jupiter crossed Rohini.

Yes

Yes

17

Mahabharata war commenced on Karttika Amavasya.

सप्तमाच्चापि दिवसादमावास्या भविष्यति |
सङ्ग्रामं योजयेत्तत्र तां ह्याहुः शक्रदेवताम् || (Udyoga 140:18)

Yes. MB was commenced on 25 Oct -3162.

No. MB war commenced on Margashirsha Trayodashi.

Yes.

18

Bhishma Moksha or Nirvana on the 92nd day after the 10th day of Kurukshetra war.

•        The fall of Bhishma on the tenth day of the war.

•        The Mahābhārata War lasted for eighteen days.  (8 days)

•        After the war, Pāndavas stayed on the banks of Ganga roughly for a month. (27/28 days)

•        Thereafter, Yudhiṣṭhira was coronated in Hastinapur. (Pushya Purnima)

•        Yudhiṣṭhira and Krishna met Bhishma on the next day. Krishna indicated that Bhishma had only fifty-six days to live. (56 days)

(8+28+56 = 92 days)

Yes. Bhishma fell on 3 Nov -3162 and attained Moksha on 3 Feb -3161 (Magha Shukla Dvadashi)

Cannot be explained.

Not explained.

19

Bhishma attained Moksha immediately after Uttarayana.

 

स निर्ययौ गजपुरात् याजकैः परिवारितः I दृष्ट्वा निवृत्तमादित्यं प्रवृत्तं चोत्तरायणम् II

 

दिष्ट्या प्राप्तोऽसि कौन्तेय सहामात्यो युधिष्ठिर I परिवृत्तो  हि भगवान् सहस्रांशुर्दिवाकरः II

माघोऽयं समनुप्राप्तो मासः पुण्यः युधिष्ठिर I त्रिभागशेषः पक्षोयं शुक्लो भवितुमर्हति II

 

निवृत्तमात्रे त्वयने उत्तरे वै दिवाकरे I

समावेशयदात्मानं आत्मन्येव समाहितः II 12.47/3 CE

Yes.

Ancient Indians traditionally followed lunisolar calendar and the Uttarayana began in Magha month of lunisolar calendar during MB era and Uttarayana was confirmed on Magha Shukla Saptami. It may not be correct to fix the date of MB based on the occurrence of Winter Solstice in Solar calendar.

Yes

Yes

20

Observation of Super Moon or Harvest Moon or Lunar eclipse before Kurukshetra War.

अलक्ष्यः प्रभयाहीनः पौर्णमासीं च कार्त्तिकीम्,

चन्द्रॊऽभूद् अग्निवर्णश्च समवर्णे नभस्तले॥ (Bhishma Parva 2.23)

Yes (Harvest Moon)

Yes (Lunar Eclipse)

Yes (Lunar Eclipse)

21

Ketu (Shveta Graha) positioned after crossing Chitra.

अभीक्ष्णं  कम्पते  भूमिरर्कं राहुस्तथाग्रसत् I

श्वेतो ग्रहस्तथा चित्रां समतिक्रम्य तिष्ठति II Bhishma Parva 3.11

Yet to be decided.

Yet to be decided.

Yet to be decided.

22

Rahu (Shyama Graha) positioned in Jyeshtha.

श्यामो ग्रहः प्रज्वलितः सधूमः सहपावकः I

ऐन्द्रं तेजस्विनक्षत्रं ज्येष्ठामाक्रम्य तिष्ठति II Bhishma Parva 3.15

Yet to be decided.

Yet to be decided.

Yet to be decided.

23

Saturn and Jupiter were in Vishakha Nakshatra before Kurukshetra war.

संवत्सरस्थायिनौ च ग्रहौ प्रज्वलितावुभौ।

विशाखयॊः समीपस्थौ बृहस्पतिशनैश्चरौ॥ (Bhishma Parva 3.25)

Yet to be decided.

Yet to be decided.

Yet to be decided.

24

Regular occultation of Rohini by Saturn.

रोहिणीं पीडयन्नेष स्थितो राजञ्शनैश्चरः। (Bhishma Parva 2.23)

प्राजापत्यं हि नक्षत्रं ग्रहस्तीक्ष्णॊ महाद्युतिः

शनैश्चरः पीडयति पीडयन् प्राणिनोऽधिकम् ॥. (Udyoga Parva 141.10)

Yes (Regular occultation during 3500-3000 BCE)

Yes (Saturn in Rohini on 25 Nov -3066)

Yes

25

Rising of Moon in the East during the Mahabharata war (14th /15th day on Chaturdashi or Purnima tithi).

ततः कुमुदनाथेन कामिनीगण्डपाण्डुना

नेत्रानन्देन चन्द्रेण माहेन्द्री दिगलन्कृता

Yes.

No

Yes

26

Balarama’s Pilgrimage of 42 days.

पुष्येण संप्रयातॊ ऽस्मि  श्रवणे  पुनरागतः

ततॊ मन्युपरीतात्मा जगाम यदुनन्दनः
तीर्थयात्रां हलधरः सरस्वत्यां महायशाः
मैत्रे नक्षत्रयॊगे सम सहितः सर्वयादवैः
…………………..
रौहिणेये गते शूरे पुष्येण मधुसूदनः (9.34.12-14)

No

Yes

No

27

Yuga Chronology: Kurukshetra War took place at the end of Dvapara Yuga (5577-3176 BCE).

अन्तरे चैव संप्राप्ते कलिद्वापरयॊरभूत् I

समन्तपञ्चके युद्धं कुरुपाण्डवसेनयॊः II

(Adi Parva 2.9)

Yes (ended in -3176)

Yes (ended in -3101)

No

28

Kaliyuga had already commenced before Kurukshetra War.

यस्मिन् यत्नः कृतॊऽस्माभिः स नॊ हीनः प्रयत्नतः,

अकृते तु प्रयत्नेऽस्मान् उपावृत्तः कलिर्महान् ॥

एतत् कलियुगं नाम अचिराद्यत् प्रवर्तते

युगानुवर्तनं त्वेतत् कुर्वन्ति चिरजीविनः  II  (Vana Parva 148.37)

प्राप्तं कलियुगं विद्धि प्रतिज्ञां पाण्डवस्य च

आनृण्यं यातु वैरस्य प्रतिज्ञायाश्च पाण्डवः II  (Shalya Parva 59.21)

कौमुदे मासि रेवत्यां शरदन्ते हिमागमे,

स्फीतसस्यमुखे काले कले: सत्त्ववतां वरः॥ (Udyoga Parva 8.17)

Yes (Kali in -3176  in Paitamaha Siddhanta)

Yes (Kali in -3101 in Latadeva’s Surya Siddhanta)

No.

29

Rising of Arundhati before Vasishtha (Reference to this past observation as bad omen.)

उभे संध्ये प्रकाशेते दिशां दाहसमन्विते ।

आसीद्रुधिरवर्षं च अस्थिवर्षं च भारत ॥ रुधिरवर्षं

या चैषा विश्रुता राजंस्त्रैलोक्ये साधुसंमता ।

अरुन्धती तयाप्येष वसिष्ठः पृष्ठतः कृतः॥ (Bhishma Parva 2.30-31)

Yes

Yes

Yes

External Evidence on Kurukshetra War Date

1

Saptarshis in Magha Nakshatra (3176-3076 BCE)

Yes

No

No

2

Sri Krishna left the mortal world on the day when Kaliyuga commenced.     

Yes (Kali in -3126, Prabhava Samvatsara, Jupiter in Dhanishtha)

No

No

3

The date of Bharata war given in the Aihole inscription.

Yes

No

No

4

Epoch of Yudhishthira Samvat (Yellayya – कल्यब्दाः रूप (12) रहिताः पाण्डवाब्दाः प्रकीर्तिताः)

Yes (Kali in -3173, Brahma siddhanta, Prabhava Samvatsara, Jupiter in Aries.). 3173-12 = 3161 BCE, the epoch of Yudhishthira Samvat.

No

No

5

 Kalidasa’s Jyotirvidabharanam – 3043 years of Yudhishthira Samvat elapsed before 33 BCE (3068 Kali)

Yes

No

No

6

Kashmir chronology given in Rajatarangini

Yes

No

No

7

The date of Buddha Nirvana in the 19th century BCE and the date of Adi Sankara in the 6th century BCE.

Yes

Yes

No

8

Reconciliation of the chronology from Puranas, Buddhist and Jain sources.

Yes

No

No

9

Jinavijaya refers to Jain Yudhishthira era that commenced 468 years after the epoch of Kaliyuga (3101 BCE) or Yudhishthira Samvat (3161 BCE).

Yes

No

No

10

Vyāsa was the author of eighteen Purāṇas. Purāṇas refer to the position of the celestial pole star in the tail of Śiśumāra (Draco) constellation. Bhāgavata Purāṇa (2.2.24, 5.23.4-8 & 6.6.14), Brahmānḍa Purāṇa (1.1.85 and 2.23.99), Matsya Purāṇa (125.5-9 & 127.16-25), Vishnu Purāṇa (2.12) and Vāyu Purāṇa (1.101) give the description of the stars of Śiśumāra (Draco) constellation. Based on these Puranic descriptions of Śiśumāra constellation, Alpha Draconis star (Thuban) can be identified as Dhruva. Alpha Draconis star (Thuban) was the celestial pole star around 3900-1800 BCE.

Yes

Yes

No

11

Kutūhalamañjari refers to the year of Yudhiṣṭhira’s coronation in Indraprastha as Surya-sunuja-nripa-saka. It informs us that Varāhamihira was born in the 8th tithi of the bright half of Chaitra month, in Jaya saṁvatsara and the year 3042 of Yudhiṣṭhira era.

Yes

No

No

12

Hisse Borala inscription: Saka 380 and Saptarshis in Uttara Phalguni Nakshatra.

Yes

No

No

13

Nidhanpur Inscription of Bhaskaravarman: Bhagadatta and Vijaya (Arjuna) flourished 3000 years before Pushyavarman.

Yes

No

No

 

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Vedveer Arya

Vedveer Arya is a civil servant and an officer of 1997 batch of Indian Defence Accounts Service (IDAS). A postgraduate in Sanskrit from University of Delhi, he is author of 'The Chronology of India'.

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